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I understand the need to exchange ID data across government departments. 

I understand the need to exchange ID data between government and business. 

I understand the need to exchange ID data across different EU countries. 

In all five regions the exchange of ID data between government and business received the highest disagreement score, with an overall mean of 6.2 on the seven grade scale. Austria, Germany and Scandinavia together were the most negative about the exchange of ID data. The overall mean of data exchange across government departments (4.4) is surprisingly positive. Data exchange between government departments as well as between different EU countries comes out well supported, especially in the new member countries and the southern part of Europe.


In all types of settlements the acceptance of data exchange between the government and the private sector was strongly declined. The number of ‘strongly disagree’ answers is close to 70 percent in each groups of settlement.

The vast majority of the respondents did not agree with the need to exchange ID data within the EU. In this particular question it is interesting to examine the effect of home settlement size. In the rural area, the amount of strong disagreement was higher than in large towns.

Approximately two thirds of those who had made no transaction had negative attitudes about the exchange of ID data between the different European countries. However the amount of positive attitude towards the exchange of ID data gets higher with the growing number of online transactions made in the last month. A small majority of those respondents having made more then 10 transactions did not support the idea of data exchange in European level.



I believe that ID authorities will not use personal information for any purpose unless they have been authorized by the individuals who provided the information. 

I believe that when people give personal information to ID authorities for a specific purpose, the ID authorities may use the information for another purpose. 

I believe that ID authorities will never share personal information with other authorities unless they have been authorized by the individuals who provided the information. 

A high number of respondents rejected the unauthorized usage of personal data, and many believe that ID authorities will indeed use the personal information without permission. However the respondents were divided as to whether authorities will use personal data for a purpose different from the original, with an overall mean at the midpoint. The differences between the five regions were smaller for this specific question, only the United Kingdom and Ireland had a stronger negative response mean (5.3) while most others notably Austria, Germany and Scandinavia tend to trust slightly more their governments.


A majority of respondents does not believe that ID authorities will not use their personal information for a purpose different from the original. In the 15-24 age range the amount of answers ‘strongly disagree’ are much lower then in the group of older respondents.  


A vast majority of the respondents do not believe that the ID authorities will manage their data with goodwill. However, the respondents still studying seem to be more positive about ID authorities. The amount of ‘strongly disagree’ answers is still 28 percent in this group.


Respondents tend to disagree that the ID authorities will devote sufficient time and effort towards the prevention of unauthorized access to personal information. Here again, UK and Ireland rated highest (5.6), and Central and Eastern Europe and Southern Europe were lowest. 


I will always be able to rely on ID authorities for help if problems arise with my ID data. 


The ability of ID authorities to help if problems arise received an overall negative evaluation with a 5.0 score mean. Here UK and Ireland had the most sceptical view, the mean for Central and Eastern Europe was again the lowest.


We found an interesting effect of age on relying on ID authorities for help if problems arise. In contrast, younger respondents agreed with the statement more often, when compared to the older respondents.  


I believe that ID authorities will always act in my best interest. 

I believe that ID authorities will be truthful and honest when dealing with my data. 

As we can see from the diagram above, the majority of respondents did not believe that ID authorities would act in their interest or deal fairly with their data, with an overall mean of 6.0 and 5.4. UK and Ireland rate highest together with the group of Austria, Germany and Scandinavia.



In this question respondents who declared themselves students were more positive than other respondents who had already finished their studies. The number of ‘strongly disagree’ answers was much lower in the group of students. Still, more than two thirds of the students did not believe that authorities will deal with their data fairly. Among the students, 71 percent chose 5 to 7 on the 7 grade scale, while 82 percent had the same attitudes in the group of respondents who finished their studies younger then 21. 

I will feel comfortable in relying upon ID authorities to look after my personal data in the ID card system. 

I will feel comfortable in sharing personal data with the ID authorities. 


The questions about trust received a negative overall evaluation. The mean of responses about the ID authorities’ effort to look after personal data received 5.9 score overall on the seven point scale. Some of the respondents were more positive about sharing their data with the authorities. UK and Ireland showed a high mean in both questions, while the respondents from new EU member states were the most optimistic.


The number of online transactions made in the last month correlates positively with the acceptance of ID authorities’ efforts; the respondents with recent experience of online transactions tended to report willingness to share their personal data more comfortably.

I will reveal some of my personal data in exchange for convenience, security and a speedy response. 

Respondents showed some willingness to reveal their personal data, with an overall mean of 4.8. Central and Eastern Europe has the lowest mean, which indicates the most positive attitude towards the system. In this question Austria, Germany and Scandinavia gain the higher mean, followed closely by UK and Ireland. Southern Europe and the group of the Benelux states and France were close to the midpoint.





















Almost half of the respondents without experience of online transactions from the last month strongly disagreed with the statement about their willingness to reveal personal data. At the same time, the overall representation of the question was much more positive in the group of people who in the past month had provided their details online.


I will feel comfortable for my ID data to be shared across government institutions. 

I will feel comfortable for my ID data to be shared between government and businesses. 

I will feel comfortable for my ID data to be shared between different countries in Europe. 

The responses regarding the interoperability of the provided ID data had an interesting distribution. The overall reception of the cooperation between government and business was very low (6.4), while there was only some reluctance to share data within the government (5.1) or across different European countries (5.3). This pattern can be found in all the five regions.

The age of respondents created highly visible differences in the judgment of ID data sharing across European member states. The level of strong disagreement was only 30 percent in the age group 15-24, while 51 percent measured in the age group 55 years and older. The values of agreement were slightly higher in the group of younger respondents, but still the overall mean showed rejection. 


I will be reluctant to apply for something like a job, credit, or insurance because I do not want to provide certain kinds of information about myself 

I will refuse to give information to ID authorities because I think it is too personal. 

I will take action to have my name removed from any list for which I haven’t authorized access to my personal data 


Despite the fact that respondents generally seem to be dissatisfied with the future ID card system and the ID authorities, the majority of respondents do not take steps to remove personal data from any unauthorized list, neither do they refuse to give personal information in some situations when asked.


Female respondents reported reservation more frequently about giving their personal information in certain situations, such as when applying for a job or for banking and insurance purposes.

The resistance to supplying certain kinds of personal information is not differentiated by the types of settlement. In all sizes of settlement the vast majority of respondents disagree or strongly disagree with the statement offered.



7. 18


The analysis of the survey’s results presented in this chapter points to an overall negative reputation of the ID authorities as perceived by EU citizens. A vast majority of the respondents do not have trust in the institutions; they are seriously critical about the competency of the authorities, and are dubious about the authorities’ ability to handle personal data.  


Of the 25 European Union countries, we received answers from 23 countries. However, the low number of responses from some of the countries and the lack of representativeness did not allow us to compare individual countries, but only regions.  


A systematic comparison of response means across the five regions indicates that respondents from UK and Ireland were the most negative in almost all attitudinal questions. Germany, Austria, Finland and the Scandinavian countries were quite close to the mean of the responses from UK & Ireland in all cases. Since these were the two biggest groups, the overall mean of the answers was close to the mean in the above two regions.  


At the same time, respondents form Central and Eastern Europe were at the other end of the attitudinal scale. For these countries responses to most of the questions were the most positive. Respondents from this region were less critical about the ID authorities in general.  


The southern part of Europe shows the most interesting structure of answers, the standard deviation was the highest here. In other words, the answers show the biggest variance in these countries. A possible reason for the big variance is the cultural diversity of the region we called Southern Europe. 


Within the group of respondents from UK and Ireland the strongest negative attitude is found in the judgement of ability to assess the benefits and risks when giving personal data to ID authorities. These respondents did not believe that the companies involved in the ID card project will be able to protect their personal data. Thus, the general level of institutional trust was very low in this region.  


Central and Eastern Europe, by contrast, presented the highest level of acceptance. Respondents from this region appear much less worried about the way in which their personal ID data will be managed. For example, they accept that the ID authorities may use the information for purposes different from the original. 


Gender differences feature strongly in some of the responses. In general, male respondents were more negative in their views. In the questions about the legal framework, the difference was 20 percent between the number of “strongly disagree” answers for the groups of women and men respectively.  


Besides gender, the age of respondents showed a strong effect on responses. Younger respondents generally tended to report much more openness about the new ID card, and less criticism on ID authorities. Older respondents form a special group, especially the age group 40 and 54, who were the most negative in all questions. 


The size of the settlement and the years spent in education had much smaller effects. The answers were typically divided into two groups: respondents from large towns had slightly more pessimistic ideas about the future of ID cards, while the respondents who live in the countryside were more optimistic. 


Finally, education has almost no effect on the answers. This result may be link to the lack of data sampling in the survey. Current involvement in education made a clearly visible difference, as the students had much lower values, that is, they generally accept the new technology and the authorities who are to manage ID data.  




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