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D2.3: Models

Citizenship, justice  D2.3 Models




Many applications including IMS support preferences as expressed by the user. These preferences are mainly related to the interface e.g. font type, colour of the display, use of toolbars etc. Other preferences could be privacy preferences, for example, which are supported by a number of web browsers.


Examples of attributes


  1. Level of detail of the interface (simple or advanced) 

  2. Desired layout (colours, etc.) 

  3. Level of disclosure of personal information 


Application domains

Preferences are used, for instance, in web and mobile applications, but they are also available for other applications including IMS of various types. Privacy preferences are implemented particularly in web browsers, allowing the comparison of the local policy with the policy of websites supporting the same standard, such as P3P.


An example of preference in ubiquitous and mobile services

The progressing evolution of technology allows the telecommunications and information services to provide omnipresent services and applications, which facilitate the users’ everyday activities. Ubiquitous services must overcome the limitations of time and space: must be accessible anytime and from any location. It is envisaged that ubiquitous services will become one of the main pillars that will support future telecommunications services. 


Ubiquitous services have the following characteristics:  

  1. Services are provided, or often triggered, based on physical conditions 

  2. Since services are invoked when such conditions are satisfied, services are aware of the real-world status and users situations 

  3. Services are offered without an explicit request from the user, because they are triggered automatically by the system and not by the user’s intention 


One of the main challenges of ubiquitous services is the capture (discovery and/or acquisition) and communication of profile data, commonly known by Capability and Preference Information (CPI), in order to provide an adaptive response. Hence, the presentation of information must be adaptable to different users and user platforms, categorised by the following features:

  1. Devices
    (PC, PDA, WAP Phone, WebTV, etc.)

  2. Device capabilities
    (display size, memory size, network speed, etc.)

  3. User preferences
    (desired layout, navigation patterns, etc.)

  4. User browsing history 


In this context, some standards exist such as CC/PP (Composite Capabilities / Preferences Profile) proposed by W3C and UAProf (User Agent Profil) proposed by the WAP (Wireless Access Protocol) forum.

See the Annexe for a description of CC/PP UAProf. 

Relevant standards

Relatively few specifications appear to exist related to the representation of users’ preferences, although in the domain of Mobile applications, CC/PP (Composite Capabilities / Preferences Profile) is utilised. 

For the comparison of a local privacy policy defined within an appropriate web browser with the privacy policy of a visited web site, P3P can be used. P3P is a standard provided by the W3C consortium.



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