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D3.7 A Structured Collection on Information and Literature on Technological and Usability Aspects of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Hurdles and application problems  Untitled
 ISO 10536



The most important results of this survey are as follows: 

  1. The “killer application” inventory shows big market potentials: Automatized stocktaking in logistics and stock-keeping is the most deployed application of RFID. 22% of the respondents make use of RFID for this purpose. Furthermore, 60% of the respondents want to conduct an inventory more often, if the inventory becomes definitely cheaper by using RFID.

  2. Insufficient accurateness of reading RFID transponders is only a “children’s disease”: The collection of RFID transponders in operative areas, e.g. close to metal, is often considered as an essential problem. In fact, 70% of the interviewed RFID pioneer enterprises were able to solve their reading problems in less than half a year.

  3. Limited willingness to pay: More than 70% of the respondents are not up to pay more than 20 Cent per passive transponder.

  4. Cutting-edge enterprises enlarge their activities: 60% of the respondents already using RFID plan to enlarge their corresponding activities. None of them wants to stop its RFID activities.

  5. Dominance of inter-company RFID applications: So far, most of RFID applications are used within an enterprise. Identification of stillages and shipping casks by passive UHF transponders is the main task.

  6. Standardization and integration are the most important hurdles: Facets of standardization and integration of RFID technology in current process and information system architectures are seen as the most important hurdles for its use. Data protection concerns of customers and a unfavourable cost-profit relation is also seen problematic.

  7. Postulation for intensification of data protection statements: Since of a possible denial of RFID technology by customers, 60% of the respondents consider an intensification of data protection statements necessary.

  8. Security has (yet) no relevance: Security concerns in the context of RFID are not seen as a hurdle for investment in RFID.


ISO 11784 and ISO 11785 are international norms for contactless identification of animals and agricultural equipment using low frequency (134.2 kHz) RFID transponders. ISO 11784 specifies the structure of the identification code while ISO 11785 specifies the characteristics of the transmission protocols between transponder and reader. ISO 14223/1 is an extension of ISO 11784 and ISO 11785. 

A 15 digit (3 digit country code in conformance with ISO 3166, 12 digit national ID code) number is specified in ISO 11784 that is supposed to be a globally unique identifier for a period of thirty years. A physical form for the transponders is not defined to allow for use-case specific customisation.

The code structure is as follows: 

Bit #         Encoded Information

1 Flag:     Animal (1), Non-Animal (0)
2-15         Field reserved for future use
16         Flag: Data Block existent (1), Data Block non-existent (0)
17-26         Country Code (ISO 3166 numeric-3)
27-64         National Identification Code

Data transmission takes between 15 (full duplex reading) and 50 (half duplex reading) ms. 

ISO 11784/11785 transponders face criticism as the uniqueness of codes can not be guaranteed, minimum performance requirements are not stipulated, and patents impact implementations of the standards.

ISO 14223/1 is based on ISO 11784/11785 and consists of three parts: 

  • Part 1:
    Radio Frequency Identification of Animals, Advanced Transponders – Air Interface

  • Part 2:
    Radio Frequency Identification of Animals, Advanced Transponders – Code and Command Structure

  • Part 3:
    Radio Frequency Identification of Animals, Advanced Transponders – Applications

ISO 14223/1 transponders contain the same ID code as ISO 11784/11785 ones, but in addition possess a larger memory and management functions for it. Transponders and readers are downwards compatible to ISO 11784/11785, i.e. ISO 14223/1 transponders answer their ID code to an ISO 11784/11785 reader, and ISO 11784/11785 transponders can be read by ISO 14223/1 readers. 

To access the additional memory and functions of an ISO 14223/1 transponder, bit 16 is flagged to 1, data block existent. A system with an ISO 14223/1 reader can make use if the advanced features of the transponder. 






Hurdles and application problems  fidis-wp3-del3.7.Structured_Collection_RFID_02.sxw  ISO 10536
Denis Royer 30 / 46