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D3.2: A study on PKI and biometrics

 Executive Summary





Title:    “D3.2: A study on PKI and biometrics”

Author:    WP3

Editors:    Mark Gasson (University of Reading, UK)
Martin Meints (ICPP, Germany)
Kevin Warwick (University of Reading, UK)

Reviewers:    James Backhouse (London School of Economics, UK)
Paul De Hert (Leiden University, the Netherlands)

Identifier:    D 3.2

Type:    [Deliverable]

Version:    1.0

Date:    10.11.20

Status:    [Final]

Class:    [Public]




Public-Key Infrastructures (PKIs) have been a hot topic for several years now, and many – often very practical – questions are still open. These certainly include corruption of keys or algorithms, usability, awareness of users and security issues. With respect to high-tech IDs, advanced PKI, e.g. supporting convertible credentials, could be developed. Until now, official PKI in member states, working according to the Digital Signature Act and national signature law, rarely work with pseudonymous keys and certificates. To improve the diffusion of electronic signatures into European markets six concrete measures are suggested. 

Both technologists and lawyers have experience in research on biometrics in the form of technology assessment and conceptualisation. However, for many kinds of biometrics it is still unclear how much security and privacy can be achieved. As the biometric market evolves in response to technology enhancement and political pressure, it is imperative that research on this topic is up to date, especially with respect to avoidance of discrimination and to privacy-compliance.  

This document forms a comprehensive study on PKIs and biometrics, specifically from the legal and technological point of view, with focus put on the possibility of privacy-enhancing implementations. 

Copyright Notice: 


This document may not be copied, reproduced, or modified in whole or in part for any purpose without written permission from the FIDIS Consortium. In addition to such written permission to copy, reproduce, or modify this document in whole or part, an acknowledgement of the authors of the document and all applicable portions of the copyright notice must be clearly referenced. 


The circulation of this document is restricted to the staff of the FIDIS partner organisations and the European Commission. All information contained in this document is strictly confidential and may not be divulged to third parties without the express permission of the partners. 


All rights reserved. 


PLEASE NOTE: This document may change without notice – Updated versions of this document can be found at the FIDIS NoE website at


FIDIS partners from various disciplines have contributed as authors to this document. The following list names the main contributors for the chapters of this document: 





Martin Meints, ICPP  

Mark Gasson, University of Reading, 


Lorenz Mueller, AXSionics,  

Mark Gasson, University of Reading 


Jos Dumortier, KULRD ()

Henry Krasemann, ICPP, (, ),

Ammar Alkassar, SIRRIX (),

Matthias Bauer, ICPP (),

Xavier Huysmans, KULRD ()

Heiko Rossnagel, University of Frankfurt (, )

Mark Gasson, University of Reading 


Els Kindt, KULRD (, , )

Vasiliki Andronikou, ICCS ()

Martin Meints, ICPP (, , )

Vaclav Matyas, MU (, , )

Lorenz Mueller, AXSionics ()

Michael Backes, IBM ()

Dionysios Demetis, LSE ()

Mark Gasson, University of Reading 


Els Kindt, KULRD ()

Martin Meints, ICPP ()

Mark Gasson, University of Reading  


Mark Gasson, University of Reading,  

Martin Meints, ICPP 

Table of Contents 



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