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Forensic Implications of Identity Systems

D5.1: A survey on legislation on ID theft in the EU and…

This document gives the first results of a survey on legislation on ID theft in EU member states and the US. Unlike the US, EU countries appear to have no specific legislation on ID theft or ID fraud. As a consequence, it is proposed to extend the scope of the survey in the second Workplan period to include other criminal provisions that may cover various forms of ID theft or ID fraud.


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D5.2: ID Fraud Workshop

This document contains a report of the FIDIS WP5 ID fraud Workshop, held on 18 May 2005 in Tilburg, the Netherlands.


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D5.2b: ID-related Crime: Towards a Common Ground for Interdisciplinary Research

This deliverable contains the consolidated version of the papers that were prepared for the ID fraud Workshop, held on 18 May 2005 in Tilburg, the Netherlands. The papers discuss ID-related crimes from a legal, a socio-economic, and a technical perspective. It provides an initial presentation of the vast array of phenomena commonly addressed as ID fraud or ID theft from the various perspectives. The legal chapter briefly discusses the EU legal framework as well as some of the national ID crime provisions. The socio-economic chapter decomposes ID linkage into ID collision, ID change, ID deletion and ID restoration in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the various types of ID crimes. It also discusses the incidence of ID crimes as well as the social and economic effects for victims and businesses. The technical chapter describes a number of technical methods of ID crime, including different perspectives on biometrics. Finally, a chapter on countermeasures describes various socio-economic and technical measures to combat ID-related crime.

The objective of this deliverable is to start creating a common ground on which further interdisciplinary research on ID crimes can be developed. The chapters are separate building blocks, put together as a first step to develop such a common ground.


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D5.2c: Identity related crime in the world of films

This examines the manifestation of identity-related crime in mainstream films and compares the picture painted in these films with the occurrence of identity-related crime in reality. It concludes that the focus of films on exotic forms of identity takeover risks reducing the awareness of citizens of real-life identity-related crime.

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D5.3: A Multidisciplinary Article on Identity-related Crime

This deliverable proposes a typology of identity-related crime. From a conceptual, technical, and legal perspective, the numerous manifestations of identity-related crime have been analysed and categorised. The analysis shows that the relationship between attacks on identification systems, types of identity-related crime, and legal provisions is complex. This is important for policy-makers to realise when designing counter-measures to address the threat of identity-related crime. The report has been written in the form of a multi-disciplinary academic article that has been submitted to a peer-reviewed journal.

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D5.4: Anonymity in electronic government: a case-study analysis of governments’ identity knowledge

The objective of this deliverable is to provide a first attempt to answer the question whether citizens becomes more anonymous or more known by the government when digital identification and authentication technologies are applied in the process of public service provision. From a historical-philosophical and a sociological angle, arguments are broached that may contribute to finding a foundation for answering this question. The issue is then addressed through case studies which illustrate different aspects of the matter at hand. The case studies allow an assessment of the state of anonymity of the citizen in the electronic as opposed to the paper-based relationship with the government. The cases vary from an organisational through a more technical (e.g., PET techniques) to a legal, data-protection perspective.

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D6.1: Forensic Implications of Identity Management Systems

The objective of this document is to provide an overview of the forensic implications of current Identity Management Systems. Because of the broad scope of this field, this document should be viewed as a guide and does not attempt to be entirely comprehensive. In-depth examples of biometric devices and mobile networks are given in the forensics context. An overview of legal systems is also provided with a comparison of digital evidence law in different countries. From the examples used and the legal systems considered, the general conclusion is that forensic information can be extracted from many electronic devices and can subsequently be used in court. However, in the examination process, it is important to consider the likely integrity of the data, i.e. how failsafe the retrieval system is, since this will undoubtedly have an impact on the identity of the real person involved as a suspect. Equally, it is necessary to ensure law enforcement investigators and technical analysts follow the necessary protocols such that otherwise admissible electronic evidence is not suppressed or legally compromised.


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D6.5/D6.6: Second thematic Workshop forensic implications

This is the report of the workshops on forensic implications (D.6.5) and profiling (D6.6) that have been held in Amsterdam at 14th of September 2005. The workshops were part of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Instititutes) Forensic IT working group meeting, integrating members of the FIDIS consortium and of the ENFSI organisation.

Within this document, an overview is given of deliverable D6.1 on forensic implications and comments for the revision where also taken here. Furthermore presentations where given on profiling issues and the due process, building the starting point for deliverable D 6.7 on forensic profiling.

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D6.7b: Workshop on Forensic Profiling

In the workshop on Forensic Profiling in The Hague at 30 September 2007, a
multi-disciplinary approach was given to forensic profiling. The limitations and
risks are discussed and should be the start for a deliverable on forensic profiling
which should be ready at April 1st 2008.

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D6.7c: Forensic Profiling

This report, on forensic profiling, provides a bridge between forensic science
and profiling from technical and legal perspectives.
Conclusions are drawn that new identity systems have their own strengths to
detect what was impossible previously. But their weakness is that they can also
provide false positives. From the examples it appears that much development is
needed in this area before large scale implementation can be used in practice.
It is concluded that the different norms approved at European level remain
insufficient. They do not deal with the impact of the widespread use of criminal
intelligence, the increased monitoring of the average citizen or the increased
linkage of police databases. Significant issues such as how to ensure the
transparency and accountability of law enforcement activities, the quality of the
data processed, e.g. the differentiation between categories of data subjects, or a strict application of the purpose specification principle remain unanswered.
Each country will thus be called to make the specific balance between the
competing interests at stake, in particular to prevent that the increasing use of
personal data for risk prediction turns into stigmatisation of parts of the


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D6.8a: Workshop on Identification of Images

The workshop on identification of images was held at Technische Universität
Dresden on September 23rd, 2008 in Dresden, Germany. In a number of
presentations, the participants contributed to a multi-disciplinary approach on
identification of images in the area of digital forensics. Basics, limitations and
risks were discussed and provide a starting point for the deliverable on forensic
identification of images, which is expected by April 1st, 2009.


D6.8b: Identification of images

In recent years, digital imaging systems have permeated our everyday lives. CCTV systems, mobile phones, (video) cameras, scanners and webcams can be used to record scenes that may be of forensic use later on. Questions may arise regarding the identification of persons, or alternatively, the authenticity or origin of these images or videos, especially when these images or videos are spread over the Internet. Therefore, objective methods that may answer some of these questions are investigated.
Here we investigate the feasibility of identifying the source camera used to record a video based on videos originating from YouTube. Also, classification of camera devices is shown to be possible to a certain extent with the help of a limited number of features and a Support Vector Machine (SVM). These methods may however fail if the images or videos were tampered with. Methods to detect these manipulations are presented, as well as an image recognition algorithm that can be used to detect known illicit images that were subject to unknown manipulations. The performance of current facial comparison techniques, by human and machine, and, aspects regarding the legal collection of electronic evidence from the Internet are also evaluated.